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Forms of Magic in Traditional Mentality
article [ Culture ]
Part V: Words and Spells

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
by [wind ]

2003-11-16  |     | 

Not anybody can be part of the witches’ world. Some laws and prohibitions must be respected. A “specialist” has to initiate the future witch and to explain her the importance and necessity of each gesture and sound. For instance, witches have to purify themselves before the ceremonial. The Romanian healers are not allowed to eat meat, sleep during daytime or else essential things could be lost, or to touch a dying or a dead man. The place where whey will perform their rituals needs to be “cleaned” by sweeping it six times in six different directions.
The magic discourse has to be clear from all points of view and to be interpreted on a proper tone.
If the spirit invoked says that the spell cannot or must not be done, it is forbidden for the spell to be performed again during the next seven days; otherwise the spell could turn again to the sender. The same thing can happen to all the elements of black magic.
The force of magic stands not only in gestures, tools and feelings, but also in words. The sound of the voice or that of the instruments can bring a new sense of power to performers and auditors. The magician uses a special language. The words and syntax, the common constituents of language, are obscured, strange or totally abandoned.
The sonorous part of spells and incantations can be taken just as rows of syllables that the intellect refuses to understand. In fact, is a sacred language, sometimes spoken only by the performer. Nevertheless, an enormous psychological power is attributed to these incomprehensible and magic words.
These bizarre sounds, having a direct influence upon the fate of man, lead to an increase in the energy and to an amplification of the feelings of the performer. It is true that usually the incantations are almost incomprehensible to the profane; nevertheless their musicality can capture everyone. Certain words are capable to change or influence the inner and outer reality. They can seem irrelevant and meaningless but their power is in the sounds themselves. Also, it is not unusual for musical instruments to accompany these words.
They say that in magic all the thoughts and written or spoken words come true. Their emotional and psychological power establishes a magical connection among the performer, the enchanted object and the superior forces.

1. The Evil Eye

The evil eye manifests as a sickness transmitted - usually without intention. It is also called “the invidious eye” or “envious eye”. The belief is that a person can harm people, objects, plants, and animals by looking at them in envy. The eyes are considered the gate of the soul and they represent a kind of bridge between a person’s feeling and someone else’s.
The meaning of the evil eye is more obviously illustrated by the old British overlooking which means that the gaze has remained too long upon the coveted object, person or animal (Hefner and Drystellas, “Evil Eye”).
The symptoms of the evil eye are quite clear: vomiting, diarrhea (children), drying up of milk in nursing mothers or livestock, wilting of fruits on orchard trees, loss of potency in men.
Water is often associated to life and dryness to death. According to this point of view, the envious eye “dries up liquids”. A good method to cure the evil eye is to spit on the victim, meaning to put liquid on her/him in order to keep them from dehydration or death.
In England there are several methods used for protection against the evil eye. The child is taken to public places and smeared with dirt; a bystander can praise or watch him, saying, “Oh, the child is so pretty - too bad he has dirt on him”. These words corroborated with the dirt seem to have a magical protective power against the evil eye. Only pure things are affected by the evil eye; that’s way it is absolutely necessary to hide them under a mask of dirt.
The Romanian healers and witches also give some pieces of advise:
· Children are not allowed to look into the mirror in their first year of life because they can send the evil eye to themselves. The duality of children is well - known. They represent purity and sometimes the malefic.
· . The newborn child has to be weighed before its first bath, but nobody must know its weigh.
· The garlic worn on a red ribbon, as a necklace, is the best talisman against the evil eye. In this case, protection is double: on the one hand, that provided by garlic against the malefic forces and, on the other hand, that brought about by the colour red, which attracts negativity.
· Gold jewels act as talismans, in their turn.
· The child’s mother can draw a sign with some ash or dust from her foot mixed with soot from the chimney.
· A talisman with great protective powers against the evil eye can be made of two, four or six stag beetle horns worn at the neck (Magia Vrăjitoarelor, 2002,2 :4).

There are more complex methods, too, for protection against the evil eye such as the following charm:

You need a pot with magnetized water taken only during daytime. You have to put nine coals in it, counting backwards from nine to one and saying:
Run eye of evil eye
Go and run from his/her sight
In the wilderness,
Where the wind doesn’t blow,
Where the dogs don’t bark,
Where the cocks don’t sing.
(Magia Vrăjitoarelor, 2002,3 :4).
The witch addresses directly to the evil eye. She invites it to go in the wilderness, far away from human beings.
Each community has, its own beliefs, relation with spirits and perception of reality. Nevertheless, ethnologists have noticed a common thing: no matter the country they live in, people consider that illness is caused by certain angry spirits or is a kind of spirit with its own personality. Therefore, it is only natural to hear a traditional healer addressing it, as if it were a person.


In the Middle Ages two words were used for “charm”: “chant” and “chantry”, denoting “magical incantations”. The last word derives from the Middle English “chauntry” which in turn derives from the Old French “chanterie”(R.B.Gendler, “Incantations”).
The term “charm” usually includes spells, incantations, conjurations, fetishes, adjurations, amulets, and talismans. They are not the consequence of only one sphere, but the meeting of folk beliefs, medicine, religion, rituals and customs. Charms are transmitted with stories of occasions on which they have been used before and depend to a great extend on the power of language although that particular kind of language is not always understood by the performer.
The performative aspect of charms is intuitive and supported by observation of the living tradition; it is also indicated by certain phrases in the texts themselves, such as “sing this charm” or “recite this psalm”.
Although their essence is pagan, charms are influenced by Christian tradition. Passages in Latin appear in many English charms.
Eq. “In Nomine Patris”,” Spiritus Sancti”
The ethnologists speak about charms in terms of “liturgical medicine”.
There are not many differences between the Romanian and English charms. Still, we can talk about some typical Anglo-Saxon elements: the flying venom, the warm, the elf.

A) Medical magic
Medical magic appeared because of practical reasons. In the beginning it did not have any connection with beliefs in the supernatural powers of certain plants. It was quite late when a connection between the healing magic and the forces which could provoke diseases was made.
According to Pamfil and Maria Bilțiu(2001:36), man conceived some methods and practices in order to heal himself. Some of them were of prevention kind, respecting the symbolism of the magical agents: the ritual bath with silver coins or the Easter bath.
Some diseases could not be cured using just a simple plant or medicine because they had been produced with the help of a witch, of demons or, in British beliefs, of elves.
Medical magic is also based on charms. For instance, in order to heal a sudden stitch, the following ritual is required:

Against a sudden stitch, take feverfew and the red nettle that grows in the house, and waybread; boil in butter. And say:

Loud they were, oh! they were loud, when they rode over the cairn; they were resolute, when they rode over the land.
Shield yourself now, you can survive this attack.
Out, little spear, if it is in here!
I stood under linden, under the light shield, where the mighty women considered
their power, and they threw shrieking spears;
I will throw another one back again, a flying spear right back
toward them.
Out, little spear, if it is in here!
A smith sat and hammered a little knife, an iron, wondrously strong.
Out, little spear, if it is in here!
Six smiths sat and made a deadly spear.
Out, spear! Not in, spear!
If there is any iron in here, the work of a witch,
it will dissolve.
If you were shot in the skin or were shot in the flesh or were shot in the blood or were shot in a joint, let your life never be injured.
If it was the shot of devils or it was the shot of elves or it was the shot of a witch,
now I will help you.
This help to you for the shot of devils, this help to you for the shot of elves, this help to you for the shot of a witch;
I will help you.
Fly there to the mountain's head.
Be whole: God helps you.

Then take the knife and put it into the liquid.
(Department of English at the University of Virginia 2001).

The “Charm for a Sudden Stitch” is a British method used to escape of a sudden stitch. The procedure is very simple: you have to take some common plants (feverfew, red nettle, waybread) and boil them in butter. While preparing this substance you have to recite the quoted lines. When everything is ready, you have to take a knife and put it in the liquid.
An old English botany treatise called The Herbal Grimoire gives the qualities of the required herbs:
· Feverfew = wards sickness, wards accidents in travel, protection
· Nettle = exorcism, protection, healing, lust
· Linden = bark used for protection, leaves and flowers for immortality, good fortune, sleep and love
There is also a very old Anglo-Saxon charm, which can be considered a real medical treatise, called “ Nine Herbs Charm”. The charm goes through the nine plants used most in the medical folklore:
1.“You were called Una, the oldest of herbs”, having power against “three and against thirty”,”against poison and against infection”, ”against the loathsome foe roving through the land”;
2. plantain is “the mother of herbs”;
3. stune fights against poison, “the hostile one”, snake, infection;
5. wergulu, against poison, pain, “three and thirty”, “against the hand of a fiend and against mighty devices”,”against the spell of mean creatures”,
6. crab-aplle, against the “loathsome serpant”
9. venom-loather
The charm also gives clear instructions about the use of these plants:
“Mugwort, plantain open form the east, lamb's cress, venom-loather, camomile, nettle, crab-apple, chevil and fennel, old soap; pound the herbs to a powder, mix them with the soap and the juice oaf the apple.
Then prepare a paste of water and of ashes, take fennel, boil it with the paste and wash it with a beaten egg when you apply the salve, both before and after. Sing this charm three times on each of the herbs before you (he) prepare them, and likewise on the apple. And sing the same charm into the mouth of the man and into both his ears, and on the wound, before you (he) apply the salve”(Department of English at the University of Virginia 2001).
The source of the stitch is external, without any connection with the human body. It is the work of a witch, devil or elves. Very strong protection is required against this loud attack. A light shield made by the mighty women under the linden will stop the negative forces passing over the cairn. A battle between the performer and the malefic forces is imagined:
Shield yourself now, you can survive this attack; little spear;
If you were shot in the skin or were shot in the flesh or were shot in the blood or were shot in the joint…

There are several references to iron in this charm. Usually, iron is a very important protective “tool” against negativity but here it is a dual element:
If there is any iron in here, the work of a witch, it will dissolve…
Here, iron probably refers to quicksilver.
Six smiths sat and hammered a little knife, a iron, wondrously strong

It is not sure who sends the stitch:
If it was the shot of devils or it was the shot of elves or it was the shot of a witch, now I will help you…
The devils, elves and witches are in the same category of creatures and they all disturb and hurt people. They have the same personality, can understand human language and they sometimes obey it.
Out, little spear, if it is in here!
Out, spear! Not in, spear!
As usual, negativity is sent in the wilderness:
Fly there to the mountain’s head.

B) Fertility Charms

In order to protect the manna of the trees, old people from Romania used to make a huge fire in the orchard for the New Year’s Eve.
The fire is a purifying element which fights against the negative forces that can destroy the trees.
Another ancient custom is to put a pail of water near the plough before first taking it to the field in spring. When the peasant is about to leave the yard, his wife pours the water on the plough.
Water is the symbol of fertility; consequently, the year is supposed to bring good fortune to the one who practices sympathetic magic.

When the man went with the plough for the first time in his fields in that year, he had to fumigate incense on the oxen and pass a pail of water over them, saying, "God help “. Let the earth to be fertile like this pail of water!”
In this magical practice, the man combines pagan and Christian elements (God, incense).
In order to determine the cows or sheep to have milk, people from Maramureş used to put holy water into a pail, and some yellow flowers, too. On the Midsummer Day they poured that mixture on their cows and sheep.
Again we have to mention a combination between a pagan holiday assumed by the Christians and some ancestral practices.
The old Anglo-Saxon fertility charms are quite complex because they include long rituals. The following charm for unfruitful land is dated from the Middle Ages and contains many Christian elements.

“Here is the remedy to improve your fields if they do not grow or if any improper thing is done to them through sorcery or through witchcraft. At night, before it dawns, take four pieces of turf from the four sides of the land, and mark how they were positioned. Then take oil, honey, yeast, the milk of each beast that is on the land, a piece of wood from every kind of tree that is grown on the land (except for hardwood), and a portion of every important plant (excepting only buck-bean), and put holy water on them, and drip it three times on the underside of the turfs, and then say these words: crescite[ grow], et multiplicamini[ and multiply], et replete,[ and fill], terre[ the earth]. In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti sit benedicti [may it be blessed in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit]. And say the Our Father as often as you say the other thing. And then carry the turf to church and let the priest sing four masses over the turfs, and let the green sides be turned to the altar; and afterwards let the turfs be brought to their former places before the sun goes down. And let four crosses of Christ be made from aspen-wood and write on each end: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Lay the cross of Christ in the bottom of the hole and then say: cross of Matthew, cross of Mark, cross of Luke, cross of Saint John. Then take the turf and place it on top of it, and say the word crescite nine times and Our Father just as often, and then turn to the east and humbly bow nine times, and then say these words:
I stand facing east, I pray for grace.
I pray the glorious Domine, pray the great Lord,
pray the holy Guardian of heaven,
pray the earth and the high heaven
and the true Saint Mary
and the might of heaven and the celestial hall
that I may, with the gift of God, utter
this charm through my teeth, with resolute purpose,
and awaken these fruits for our worldly use,
fill up this earth with firm belief,
beautify this meadow’s turf, as the prophet said
that he who gloriously distributed alms
as God wills would have grace in the earthly kingdom.

Then turn yourself three times with the sun, then prostrate yourself, lying full length, and count out the litany, and then say Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus all the way to the end. Then sing Benedicite with arms outstretched and Magnificat and the Our Father three times, and commit it to Christ and Saint Mary and the holy cross for the praise and honor and grace of him who owns the land and all who are subject to him. When all that has been done, let one take an unknown seed from a bedesman and give him two of whatever has been taken from him, and then gather all his plowing equipment together. Then, in a hole bored in the plow-tail, place incense, finnel, hallowed soap and hallowed salt. Then take the seed, place it on the frame of the plow, and say:
Erce, Erce, Erce, mother of earth,
May the Ruler of all, the eternal Lord, grant you
growing and flourishing fields,
increasing and strengthening,
high stalks and lovely fruits,
and the broad barley-crop,
and the white wheat-crop,
and all the fruits of the earth.
May the eternal Lord and his saints
who are in heaven grant it
that its crops be defended from every foe,
and let her be protected from every injury
of witches, sown throughout the land.
Now I pray the Ruler who created this world
that there be no woman so talkative or man so strong
as can turn aside the words thus spoken.
Then drive forth the plow and open the first furrow, and say:
Be well, earth, mother of men!
May you grow in the Father’s embrace,
filled with food for the use of men.

Then take every kind of meal and bake a loaf of bread as broad as the palm of the hand, and knead it with milk and holy water and lay it under the first furrow. Then say:
Full field of food for humankind,
brightly blossoming, blessed be
in the holy name of Him who created heaven
and the earth we live upon;
may the God who created this land grant us a growing gift,
so that every grain comes to our use.

Then say three times Crescite in nomine Patris, sit benedicti. Say Amen and Our Father three times.

(Department of English at the University of Virginia 2001).
There are some charms, each containing the same pagan elements, reported by medieval monks. Although these charms have many Christian elements, their pagan origin cannot be denied. Many Old English charms mix Latin prayers with Old English formulae and quite a few charms contain Greek or Old Irish verses. The Latin prayers themselves may well have been uninterpretable to many Anglo-Saxon læcas (healers, doctors).
The stimulation of the manna of the land or the animal was one of the most important preoccupations of the simple man. He developed many methods of stimulating the fertile energies of the land. The magical agents were numerous, too. Some of them had Christian origin, others were used in magic for different purposes (like in the case of mandrake).
The chant contains strict instructions, which have to be respected as such. The ritual is quite complex and combines some pagan elements with Christian concepts. The charm recognizes the existence of sorcery and the fact that witchcraft can provoke damages to the land. The collecting of the four pieces of turf, the oil, honey, yeast, milk, and the pieces of wood has to be done before the down. While doing this, one must say the following magical words: “Crescite, multiplicamini, et replete, terre . In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti sit benedicti”. The influence of the Christian world is obvious. The traditional formula was abandoned. All the products mentioned above have to be taken to the church and out in front of the altar. People tended to replace the witches with the priests but the church itself practiced a form of magic, namely white magic.
Not only the ritual but also the incantation itself is very important. It is an invocation of the Divinity, of the saints, of the “holy Guardian of heaven” and of “the true Saint Mary” in order to placate them and to “awake these fruits for our worldly use”. It was not difficult to replace the pagan gods with the Christian one as long as God could help the mortals. It does not matter wether people have prostrated in front of the sun, chanting its light, or have prostrated in front of the mighty God.
The medieval man recreated the world while chanting his land. He went back to the beginning of life when chousing the “unknown seed”. This seed would generate the new crops, and infertility would be defeated. This is the reason why the world should be chanted.
In the second part of the incantation, the mixture of paganism and Christianity is even stronger. Erce depends on the “Ruler of all”, he is the one who would permit her to grow and to flourish and he would protect her from “every foe” and “every injury”. The charm contains heathen lore and ritual referring to the Earth which is honored and praised almost as a goddess.
Erce, “mother of Earth”, appears in combination with the modern characters of religion. To some historians and ethnologists, Erce is just a cry of invocation to the Earth itself, to others is the name of an Earth goddess. It is more than likely that this invocation of the Earth goddess has a pre-Christian origin.

C) Casting Charms

The following spell is very powerful. It has the role to establish a deep connection between a man and a house or woman. It requires 4 silk threads about 1.5m. Their tags are burnt in white candles’ flame in a magic place. Then, they are tied while repeating 3 times his name. After this, the witch says:

I bind you and bound remain
Tongue-tied, stock-still
Like a star in the sky,
Like water in a well,
Stabbed and trammeled
In the earth, in the human body
Of clay and evil stone.
Until I’ll revenge
I take his heart.
The threads are cut with the knife and the “work” repeated 9 times during a day and a night (Magia Vrăjitoarelor, 2002, 5: 4).

The thread represents destiny and refers to the magical act of the cosmic and ritually weaving which had to be secretly made. It belongs to the large series of symbols of verticality which includes the human silhouette.
Man is felt as an obstacle and the burning of the thread leads to the burning of the obstacle. It is a magic form of purification obtained through the destruction of an obstacle exterior to the self. In this context, it becomes a kind of sacrifice. We are not talking about self-sacrifice but the sacrifice of an exterior object. Respecting this, the self can be released. Usually, the flame of the candle signifies the truth, but in this case the flame belongs to the category of destructive symbols. The smoke does not mean purification any longer, it does not identify itself with Axis Mundi. The smoke is just the dark part of life, maybe the evil. The white is canceled and the black installed. Light is replaced by darkness.
The most important symbol in this charm is the knot; it represents obstacles for the enemy, straying, and agony. The charmed person is thrown into a labyrinth. Escape it is not possible until the knot is untied. The sky, the water, the earth, the human body are representations of the labyrinth; they represent the return to chaos and to the unconsciousness.

D) Rain Charms

People have always tried to make nature work for them. Considering its – at times – disastrous force, that can easily be understood.
Certain rituals were believed to influence the wind, the rain, the lightning or the storms. These rituals were part of a special type of magic called “meteorological magic”.
In many communities it was believed that mythological creatures like dragons, shamans, rainbow or even gods controlled the rain. Even today, in some regions of Romania, people say that the rainbow is like a circle on the sky, which has one end in a big water and the other one in another water. The rainbow drinks from both of them and then, suddenly, it lets the water it had drunken to fell on the Earth as rain.
After Christianization, God becomes the supreme force who organises the entire universe and life. He is responsible for everything, He can bring rain or sunshine. In order to have these elements which are so important for their lives, in almost all the communities there are people responsible for this aspect. They play the role of the shaman, being the connection with Divinity. In Romania these rainmakers are called “solomonari” and belong to the large category of popular wizards who are invested with supernatural powers and therefore, capable to bring rain, wind and storms. Besides these incredible characters, the people also have used magical practices based on the symbolism of certain objects (e.g. the cleaver), animals (e.g. frogs) or plants (e.g. cabbage, poppy).
The brick makers have been considered specialists in rain casting and invested with magical powers. Because they are dependent on the lack of humidity, they have tried to control it, releasing rain when they could not work.
Based on sympathetic magic, almost all the spells and rituals designed to bring rain involve water. People use to stole an old funeral cross from the cemetery and put it into a river, fixed between two stones; they would put it back in its original place after rain. In some parts of Romania, not anyone can take the colon, only a pure widow is allowed to do this. The funeral cross has a special meaning. We know that the ancestors are very important in traditional societies, they are respected and praised because after death they still help their relatives.
Another Romanian method to bring the rain is the ceremonial burring of a doll by nine or thirteen girls.
Sometimes, people prefer to ask for the help of superior forces. An English charm proposes the same thing:

Do this outside staring at clouds above:
"Ancient Gods and Goddesses,
I invoke thee.
Waters from the sky,
Let it be."
"I command thee now,
to thee all.
Listen to my desire,
Rain fall!"
Michael Doherty proposes a simple charm based on the invocation of the ancient gods and goddesses. In traditional mentality, gods control everything; they are the masters of the earth and of the sky. Still, human desire can lead people beyond their own limits. If helped by magic, people become even powerful. With the magic of their words, they can determine gods to let rain fall.

Simply take a bowl full of water and if you have 2 people sit across from each other... if it is just you then just put it in front of you.
Make sure you make your circle then chant over the bowl of water "Water Nymphs strike the clouds so rain will fall freely to the ground" while doing that visualize clouds bursting open and water falling down over the area you wish for rain. ( Lisa King ).

In this case the procedure is simple, too. The charm is based on the power of sympathetic magic. The water in the bowl attracts the rain. Of course, magic has to be stimulated with the psychological energy of the performer.

E) Love Charms

Philters have a very important role in love magic. From the antiquity, this “love potion” has been thought to have magical powers, causing one to follow in love with another person. Philters were very popular in the Middle Ages, but charms and spells have been preferred since the 17th century. A traditional philter consists of wine, tea or water, and it contains herbs or drugs. In fact, the ingredients vary from country to country. The most common plant throughout history has been the mandrake root, also known as “love apple”, a poisonous member of the nightshade family. Orange and ambergris have added flavor and pleasant aroma to the liquid and the fern seed have to be gathered in the St. John’s Day. Some philters contained the hearts and reproductive organs of animals, or even body fluids. In England, women used to steep their hair in the water she gave to her intended to drink.
Philters have begun to lose popularity since the Middle Ages because of its taste and smell although an alternative to ingestion has been conceived: the person was to rob his/her hand with vervain juice before touching the desired man or woman.
In England, using philters was prohibited at certain time because the law stipulated that any kind of magic acted against church, life and morality.
Philters were used in Romania, too. There are many texts reporting this kind of magical practice. Gheorghe V. Brătescu speaks in his book, Vrăjitoria de-a lungul timpului, about different formulae used for breaking spells. Here is, for instance, a widespread incantation which accompanied philtres:
Go to my man
And dress him in fire…
And put the fire into his heat(197).
In popular mentality, physical beauty leads to the beauty stereotype of the ideal partner. Certain canons of beauty are essential for matching the predestinated or desired couple. Respecting some rituals, the physical beauty can be stimulated. Certain practices are based on empirical medicine. This is the case of the lilac, capable to clean the skin. On the other hand, objects, such as silver coins, can transmit a part of its qualities.
Unmarried persons are not accepted in traditional societies. A girl can be marginalized if she has not found her love yet. This conception has generated different practices for stimulating love, filled with special magical powers. The repertory of magical agents is very rich but it is the ritual of mandrake to be the most dramatic one.
Certain magical Romanian practices from the 18th and 19th centuries were influenced by foreign techniques. The result was a contaminated magic. Some witches prepared the so-called “love ink”, pretending that every written thing with that special ink would attract the sympathy of whose who read it. This contamination indicates the total degradation of black magic. Not only the Romanian magic was contaminated, but also the English one. The following charm perfectly illustrates this contamination:
Supplies: materials to cast a circle, one red or pink candle, love oil, pin, red or pink crayon or pen, a pink or red or piece of paper.
Step 1: Cast your circle
Step 2: Visualise the type of man you want to be with. Make sure tovisualise
everything you are looking for in him, like looks, hair, job, sensitivity,
caring, understanding, not violent, sex, size of his "want not", honesty, loyalty, respect, ect.
Step 3: write with pin into candle "love come to me" anoint the red/pink candle with oil, starting at top to centre change hands and do same from bottom to centre. All while concentrating on man and focusing energy into candle. Light candles off of alter candle (white). Set on altar.
Step 4: Take piece of paper and write on it "love come to me" around the words encircle it with touching hearts.(use red/pink crayon-better to use pink paper and red crayon)Set paper under red candle.
Step 5: Say aloud (while concentrating on person)
"By the power of hope and truth
By the power of the old and youth
In true love with him i want to be
By the power of the universe let love come to me"
Step 6: Take piece of paper and set it on fire with red candle and repeat the
rhyme above, Throw the paper in pot and say "so mote it be".
Step 7: Close circle ( Raven, “Puzuzu” 2001)

Raven, the author of this charm, combines elements of old magic and symbols of modernity. For example, the simple invocation of love is mixed with the writing on paper of several modern love symbols, such as little hearts.
The candles symbolize the light. They have to lead the desired man to the performer of the spell. The woman creates an imaginary man who finally will enter into her world. She controls nature; she plays the role of God, establishing all the characteristics of her man: sensitivity, job, hair,honesty, respect, etc.). She invokes the ancient principles of life – hope, truth, old, youth – and the entire universe, in order to get the man she wants.
The charm belongs to black magic although at a first sight it does not contain clear elements of black magic. Nevertheless, by each step of this charm, the woman controls the destiny of her wanted man. Man’s destiny is written on that shit of paper. At the end of the spell, she puts the shit of paper into the pot. The man becomes the prisoner of his own destiny. The woman has the power upon him; this means that his freedom is annulled.


1. Bilțiu, Pamfil, and Bilțiu, Maria. Fascinația. Baia Mare: Enesis, 2002.
2. . Bomher, Noemia. Cartea descântecelor. n.p: Corson, 1999.
3. Brătescu, Gh, V. Vrăjitoria de-a lungul timpului . Bucureşti: Editura Politică, 1985.
4. Caillois, Roger. Omul şi sacrul. Bucureşti: Nemira, 1997.
5. Candrea, I.A. Folclorul medical român comparat. Medicina magică.n.p: Casa Şcoalelor, 1944.
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