Agonia.Net | Policy | Mission Contact | Participate
poezii poezii poezii poezii poezii
armana Poezii, Poezie deutsch Poezii, Poezie english Poezii, Poezie espanol Poezii, Poezie francais Poezii, Poezie italiano Poezii, Poezie japanese Poezii, Poezie portugues Poezii, Poezie romana Poezii, Poezie russkaia Poezii, Poezie

Article Communities Contest Essay Multimedia Personals Poetry Press Prose _QUOTE Screenplay Special

Poezii Romnesti - Romanian Poetry



Texts by the same author

Translations of this text

 Members comments

print e-mail
Views: 8749 .

Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Panama
essay [ ]
Parallelisms and Self-Determination

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
by [Songo ]

2005-09-14  |     | 


Even when these Nations and Territories belong to different Continents, they share many things in common and as a consequence, their Peoples relate each other in ways which are sometimes surprising.


They all share a rich aborigin history subsequently dominated by the Conquerors. In countries like Panama, the aborigin inheritance is still there. In Cuba, Puerto Rico and in Philippines, it was almost totally assimilated by the mixing of races or termination of such human groups.


The Hispanic Heritage is strong in all these Nations. These Territories were discovered in a short period. The first one to be discovered was Cuba (1492) by CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS himself, then Puerto Rico (1493) and Panama by sailor RODRIGO DE BSTIDAS (1501) followed. The last territory to be discovered by European man was Philippines (1521) by the Great Sailor FERDINAND MAGELLAN.
The conquest and colonization followed pretty soon, between 1510 and 1565, these Territories were under full Spanish Sovereign Power.
It was not until the XIX Century when the first Independentists movements and riots took place. Panama declared Independence in 1821, but soon after that joined willingly to the Great Colombia. Cuba and Puerto Rico had several failed conspiracies between 1812 and 1897. Philippines had its insurgents struggling for Independence in 1896.
Spain offered Autonomy to Cuba and Puerto Rico in 1897. Philippines and Panama`s cases were a bit different.
In conclusion, Cuba and Puerto Rico were the last Colonies of the Spanish Empire in the American Continent, while in Asia, Philippines remained under Hispanic control with the XX Century breathing down their necks.


In 1898, the Hispanic-American War took place. In short, Spain lost its last Colonies. The Spanish Empire collapsed.
Philippines: E. AGUINALDO asked U.S.A. for help after the Nationalist Rebellion where writer JOSE RIZAL was executioned.
Cuba: After the execution of JOSE MARTI and ANTONIO MACEO, U.S.A. gets involved in the War.
Puerto Rico: During QUIÑONES Autonomous Regime, U.S.A. makes a Military intervention and takes on the Isle.
The PEACE OF PARIS is signed in 1899 and Spain says goodbye to Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico.
Panama: After 82 years under the influence and Sovereign of Colombia, and after the mistake of the French Canal, led by FERDINAND DE LESSEPS, the U.S.A. purchased the stocks of the COMPAGNIE UNIVERSELLE DU CANAL DE PANAMA. Due to inner political struggles the Colombian Authorities didn`t agree to sign a Treaty with the U.S.A.
On the other hand a bloody civil war was tearing Colombia (and Panama) apart. Panamanian merchants and notables led a Conspiracy guided by French Engineer PHILIPPE BUNEAU-VARILLA and separated from Colombia, with U.S.A. support.
These four Nations got their Liberation (from Spain and from Colombia) and immediately were under the U.S.A. Influence in the TEDDY ROOSEVELT Era, the "Big Stick" had been applied.
The XX Century started, we were free, but we were not free.


Philippines struggled hard, from the "Philippine Autonomy Act" of 1916, through the Commonwealth until the Armistice of 1996, the Archipelago achieved to be set free from U.S.A. Military Bases.
The Philippines also dealt with the Nippon occupation in the World War II, U.S.A. `s back to liberate. However, times change, Nations evolve and old wounds demand for healing, a new understanding is required for New Generations.
Cuba fought hard against the "Platt Ammendment" of 1902, which allowed U.S.A. to intervene in Cuban Internal Affairs. Such Ammendment was derogated in 1936 but the U.S.A. Influence was still strong.
Then FIDEL CASTRO started a Guerrilla in 1953 all along the Sierra Maestra until he took the Power on 1959. He alligned the Island to the U.S.S.R., and at the End of the Cold War (1989) he had to refocus, still an Anti Yankee with so many things still shared with U.S.A.
Puerto Rico had (and still has) its own resistance. As an example, the "Ponce Massacre" in 1937. But when MUÑOZ MARÍN initiates the Democratic Popular Party in 1938, Separatists lose popularity and Puerto Rico remains a "Free Associated State" of U.S.A., since 1950.
Referendums have come and gone with tight results while "Boricuas" never resign to lose their unique identity as a Nation.
Panama had to fight with an awful Clause of the HAY-BUNEAU VARILLA Treaty of 1903, which gave in a perpetual conditions a strip of Land in the Middle of the Country, surrendered to U.S.A. Sovereignty. That was the price of Independence and of having a Path to join the 2 Oceans.
National Guard and the Oligarchy were 2 Allies for the U.S.A., until the Students started to claim for Soverignty and Self Determination. A massacre took place in 1964 with many Panamanian High School Students slain by U.S.A.`s Soldiers. Years later and led by General TORRIJOS, A New Treaty was signed, TORRIJOS-CARTER Canal Treaty (1977), a Brand New Covenant which gave back the Whole territory to us Panamanians on December 31, 1999.


Cubans, Puertorricans, Filipinos and Panamanians share a Hispanic background, many of our names are Spanish and a Catholic Tradition is firmly rooted.

However, we all had to learn English, the Language of the New Conqueror. Many of our Parents or Grandparents worked for or studied ar the U.S.A. We remember their Military Troops and while many of our people long for American presence, many strongly reject that and are Nationalists "par excellence".

But most of all we are places where a beautiful mix of races gave as a result a very interesting Human Phenomenon.

We have our Aborigin roots that print us a whole different identity, each one an Individual Manifestation of originality.


The future is in blank... For us to fill it...


.  | index

poezii poezii poezii poezii poezii poezii
poezii Home of Literature, Poetry and Culture. Write and enjoy articles, essays, prose, classic poetry and contests. poezii
poezii  Search  Agonia.Net  

Reproduction of any materials without our permission is strictly prohibited.
Copyright 1999-2003. Agonia.Net

E-mail | Privacy and publication policy

Top Site-uri Cultura - Join the Cultural Topsites!